Executive agreement, an agreement between the United States and a foreign government that is less formal than a treaty and is not subject to the constitutional requirement for ratification by two-thirds of the U.S. Senate. These examples are automatically selected from different online sources of information to reflect the current use of the term „executive agreement.” The opinions expressed in the examples do not reflect the views of Merriam-Webster or its publishers. Send us comments. The U.S. Supreme Court Pink (1942) found that international agreements, which were concluded in law, have the same legal status as treaties and do not require Senate approval. To Reid v. Concealed (1957), the Tribunal, while reaffirming the President`s ability to enter into executive agreements, found that such agreements could not be contrary to existing federal law or the Constitution. Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements.
The executive`s purported intention to make full use of executive agreements in the implementation of post-war colonies was repeatedly cited during the Senate debate during the 1943 session of Congress. „We are told,” said Senator O`Mahoney (D., Wyo.) during the debate on the prorogation of the Trade Agreements Act, that there will be no need to end this war with a peace treaty. During the Panama Claims Agreement debate, Senator Clark (D., Mo.) stated that „there is no intention to present to Congress the terms of the peace settlement.” It is planned to agree the terms of peace by an executive agreement, „subject to the agreement of the President.” According to Senator Taft (R., O.): „The Constitution wisely provides that treaties must be approved by the Senate, but increasingly the president will whip this provision of the Constitution.” A treaty is an international agreement established in writing and by international law between two or more sovereign states, whether inscribed in a single instrument or in two or more related acts. Treaties have many names: conventions, agreements, pacts, pacts, charters and statutes, among others. The choice of name has no legal value. Contracts can generally be categorized into one of two main categories: bilateral (between two countries) and multilateral (between three or more countries). As explained in more detail in 11 FAM 721.2, there are two domestic law procedures by which the United States becomes parties to an international agreement. First, international agreements (regardless of your title, name or form) that come into force with respect to the United States only take place after two-thirds of the U.S. Senate has given their opinion and approval in accordance with Article II, Section 2, of Clause 2 of the Constitution. Second, international agreements, which come into force with respect to the United States on a different constitutional basis than the Council and Senate approval, are „non-treaty international agreements” and are often referred to as „executive agreements.” There are different types of executive agreements.